Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processing: The Priming affect of Semantic Relatedness and Emotional Valance

by Michelle Kennedy for Cognitive Psychology

Abstract
This study explored conscious and unconscious processing in relation to word valence and mental

health (anxiety and happiness). A sample of 144 English speaking University students participated in the experiment. Batches of 20 students, grouped by valence, were administered three tasks (1) Semantic decision task on word pairs that included a positive, negative or neutral word plus a control; (2) Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (SSTAI; Spielberger, Gorsuch, Lushene, Vagg,& Jacobs, 1983); (3)The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ; Hills & Argyle, 2002). The Prime Relatedness main effect and Prime Relatedness by Word Type interaction were both significant, but the Word Type main effect was not significant. No significant effect sizes were found between mental health and reaction times. This study found both positive and negative valence do increase our unconscious processing speed especially when prime related, however neutral words resulted in little effect to priming. Further research is required to establish a link between mental health and cognitive performance.

Conscious and Unconscious Cognitive Processing: The Priming affect of Semantic Relatedness and Emotional Valance

Research into cognitive psychology has challenged traditional notions on perception, as studies conclude information processing can be unconscious (Merikle, Smilek & Eastwood, 2001). Yet as a rule, the extent to which stimuli is given attentive space depends on the importance of the message, which is considered a conscious process (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963). Cognition relies on memory, perception, emotion, attention, associations and an individual lexicon (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963; Eysenck & Keane, 2015; Okubo & Ogawa, 2013; Reisberg, 2013, Sass, Habel, Sachs, Huber, Gauggel & Kircher, 2012). Although some degree of cognitive arousal is essential for attention to operate, many believe processing occurs largely with conscious stimuli rather than unconscious stimuli and is a matter of selective attention (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963). Despite this selective attention, no matter how alert we are there is a limit to the number of stimuli to which we consciously attend (Deutsch & Deutsch, 1963).

The question is to what extent do we process a subliminal stimulus, and how does emotion facilitate or hinder this process? Past research indicates that negative emotional arousal interferes with semantic processing and cognitive ability in subsequent tasks, which we will discuss (Sakaki, Gorlick & Mather, 2011). Studies using affective priming have successfully examined unconscious processing by masking semantically related primes (Okubo & Ogawa, 2013). Semantic priming is a well-known technique whereby a related word presented before a target word enhances processing of the subsequent target word (Heyman, Rensbergen, Storms, Hutchinson & DeDeyne, 2015), typically linked to a spreading activation process; masking thus renders the emotional valence of a word subliminal (Bodner & Masson, 2003). This priming effect has been proven to occur for word pairs that are associatively related, categorically related or simply look or sound similar (Okubo & Ogawa, 2013). The consensus of the research literature suggests that priming can be used in a variety of situations, including lexical decision-making and word labelling (Bodner & Masson, 2003). It will be argued that emotions play a vital role in cognition, with positive emotions enhancing cognitive abilities and that negative arousal is detrimental to cognitive processing as it reduces activation in the prefrontal cortex where perception, working memory, decision making and executive functioning is thought to reside (Itkes & Mashal, 2016).

Okubo and Ogawa (2013) conducted a study using affective priming to evaluate emotional valance (i.e., negative and positive) on target stimulus and observed RTs were faster when the prime and the target had the same valence. According to the Automatic Vigilance Hypothesis valence is automatic evaluated (Itkes & Marshal, 2016). A series of studies on unconscious processing, or perception without awareness found that information is perceived without attending or awareness of perceiving (Merikle, et al., 2001; Okubo & Ogawa, 2013), and adds further weight to an automatic processes. This defies common logic that we must perceive in order for information to affect thoughts, feelings and behaviour. Moreover, neuroscience has mapped the brain and found two pathways, which underlie emotional experience (Okubo & Ogawa, 2013), one of which may hold the secret to this unconscious processing. The cortical pathway (from the thalamus, through the cortex to the amygdala) is known as the conscious route and is evoked by attended stimuli. Whereas the subcortical pathway (direct thalamus-amygdala connection) may be evoked by subliminal stimuli and the emotional meaning appraised even if the stimuli has not been identified (Okubo & Ogawa, 2013). The studies conducted by Mack and Rock (1998; as cited in Merikle, et al., 2001), found unattended stimuli which participants claimed not to have observed, displayed measurable behavioural patterns associated with perception and thus concluded stimuli was perceived without awareness.

Deutsch and Deutsch (1963) assert that discrimination is required when attending, because as humans we find it difficult to attend to two stimuli simultaneously, such as talking on the phone and listening to a lecture. However, they found that unwanted messages were first processed before they were rejected or ignored, meaning that the two messages were first analysed for importance before one of them was discarded. Merikle et al., (2001) did a study to find out the difference, if any, in the consequences of conscious versus unconscious processing and found there were indeed qualitatively different consequences. The evidence supported perception without awareness under many conditions.

Implications for behaviour change from things, which arouse emotions, are huge; money for instance is highly emotive. Vohs, Mead, and Goode (2008) conducted a study on money and found merely activating the concept of money can change behaviour, for example participants subtly reminded of money preferred solitary tasks and were less helpful than those who were not reminded of money. Perception of a stimulus is personal and may be linked to ones mental health or valance of a stimuli; Yuan et al., (2011) completed studies on mood influence on brain functioning and found pleasant mood increases brain processing of cognitive control. In other words, it improved performance when the participants were required to inhibit task irrelevant activities from distracting them to achieve a goal. Further empirical evidence (Gray, 2001; as cited in Yuan et al., 2011) reveals mood acts as a modulating effect on the processes of cognitive control.

It is thought that due to the reduction in prefrontal cortex activation, negative valence captures attention automatically, more than positive words. Neuroimaging of the brain showed a reduced level of activation in the prefrontal cortex whilst conducting an automatic task. Sakaki et al., (2011) concluded that due to the considerable cognitive processing required for semantic connections, it is plausible that negative emotional states, such as anxiety which reduces activity in the prefrontal cortex, may interfere with semantic processing.

Against this background the aim of the present study was to examine whether the size of the priming effect in conscious and unconscious processing relates to word valence and if individual differences in happiness and anxiety play a role in the information we process. Therefore, it was hypothesised that prime related words with a positive valence will have faster reaction times (RTs) than control positive words. It was also hypothesised that prime related words with a negative valence will have slower RTs than control negative words. It was further hypothesised that prime related words with a neutral valence will have faster RTs than control neutral words. It was also hypothesised that participants scoring high on the OHQ and SSTAI will have faster RTs to negatively valence words than to positive or neutrally valence words.

Discussion

The purpose of the present study was to examine whether the size of the priming affect depends on word valence and if individual differences in happiness and anxiety affect information processing. We did find significant effect sizes for both positive words and negative words but not for neutral words. Analysis showed the direction of the reaction was negative for the emotionally valence words (positive and negative), indicating participants were indeed quicker on the primed words compared to the control words. The neutral word results were unexpectedly reversed; participants were quicker on the control pair than the prime pair. Although a weak positive correlation was found for individual differences of mental health the results were not significant as only 10% of the priming affect could be attributed to anxiety and only 8% to happiness. There is insufficient evidence to draw any conclusions.

The results of this study supported the hypotheses that prime related words with a positive valence did have faster RTs than control positive words. As discussed earlier there have been many studies, which show improvement in cognitive performance due to pleasant moods and positive valence (Sakaki et al., 2011) so this result is not surprising. An essential component of strong cognitive performance is the ability to organize information and inhibit task irrelevant thoughts. Spreading activation is notable, in that faster RTs are common with related concepts (Sass et al.,2012) perhaps positivity was used as a cognitive link. Research on attention is another possible explanation as results on positive moods indicate a broadening of attentive scope while a narrowing of attention occurs with negative moods (Sakaki et al., 2011). Therefore, our results for negative valence words are surprising.

Contrary to expectations, prime related words with a negative valence actually had faster RTs than control negative words. Furthermore, the negative primed pair resulted in even faster RTs than the neutral primed pair words. A likely culprit for this could be the link between the reduction in prefrontal cortex activity and automatic responding (Merikle et al., 2001). By shutting down the executive functioning, the individual was able to react in an instinctual manner rather than respond. Studies, which have monitored brain activity, found negative stimuli are given priority over neutral and positive stimuli (Itkes & Mashal, 2016). Deutsch and Deutsch’s theory of learning (1963, p. 85) predicts an inverse correlation where stimuli with high importance can be mistakenly perceived, therefore the increased RTs we obtained may simply be from link- analyser units in the brain making a mistake or allocating it as higher importance than other messages they were receiving at the time.

Our hypothesis, that prime related words with a neutral valence will have faster RTs than control neutral words was not supported. A possible explanation for these results could lie in the effects emotions have on our attention. Emotions are an essential component of human survival therefore it makes sense that emotional stimuli arouses attention faster and stronger than neutral stimuli, it has also been assessed as being more accurate and detected quicker than neutral stimuli (Sakaki et al., 2011). Spreading activation which assume that semantic activation spreads along the connections in long-term memory networks and makes associations which are fast and automatic (Bodner & Masson, 2003) fits this concept well.

Our final hypothesis, that participants scoring high on the OHQ and SSTAI will have faster RTs to negatively valence words than to positive or neutrally valence words was not supported. We didn’t find a significant connection to individual mental health over the relatedness of the prime.

As mentioned earlier the percentages than could be attributed to these emotional states were minimal.

Masked priming in the form of pre- and postmasking, prevented most subjects from perceiving their semantic properties, this was done to study unconscious affects of valence, however controversy around emotional arousal on cognition remains high. Our studies support the research thus cited even though a review by Mitchell and Phillips (2007; as cited in Yuan et al., 2011) on executive function and mood found opposing results, where positive mood inhibited performance during an Eriksen flanker task and negative mood had little effect on cognitive control. Rossell and Nobre (2004; as cited in Sass et al., 2012) who analysed affect on semantic priming also found no effect or inhibition for negative stimuli. They did however find a priming effect for positive and neutral stimuli. They postulated that neutral and positive stimuli might share some semantic properties therefore activating neural networks that weren’t available for negative stimuli.

This then brings up the limitations of this study; our research was confined to semantic stimuli and not procedural processing or cognitive control, which has found to have different outcomes for positive and negative stimuli compared with semantic results. Another limitation was that we used behavioural measures alone (e.g., response time) to discover the impacts of affective priming without neurophysiological measures. Therefore, we still don’t know what happens in the brain when confronted with emotional stimuli. Further research using both measures would be helpful to fully understand the complex processing that occurs when we perceive a stimuli whether it’s conscious or unconscious.

Despite these findings we lean towards the results our study found, that it is, emotions have a profound affect on our cognitive abilities and there is considerable difference in outcomes whether we consciously attend to something or perceive it subliminally. Positive emotions broaden our attentive scoop, tighten our semantic organization and generally enhance our cognitive performance. While negative emotions bypass our conscious and seem to be processed by our automatic response system. Negative arousal does disrupt some brain functions however it is usually noticed quickly and accurately over neutral and even positive stimuli. Our brain requires memory, attention, associations, and perception to process information but this can be an unconscious process just as easily as a conscious process. The implications of these findings for the general populous are substantial; first subliminal messages can create behaviour change and second negative stimuli is processed before neutral or positive stimuli and may decrease our executive functioning. The media is full of disturbing news and simply having it on in the background may seep into our brains and distort our behaviour. We need to be vigilant with what we allow into our lives and keep the tone upbeat for our own mental health and well-being if nothing else.

Some other theories which may be responsible for the priming effect are the spreading- activation theory, which assume that semantic activation spreads along the connections in long-term memory networks and makes associations which are fast and automatic (Bodner & Masson, 2003).

References

Bodner, G., & Masson, M. E. J. (2003). Beyond spreading activation: An influence of relatedness proportion on masked semantic priming. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 10(3), 645-652.

Deutsch, J. A., & Deutsch, D. (1963). Attention: Some theoretical considerations. Psychological Review, 70, 80-90.

Eysenck, M. W. & Keane, M. T. (2015). Cognitive psychology: A student's handbook (7th ed.). Hove, Sussex: Psychology Press.

Hills, P., & Argyle, M. (2002). The Oxford happiness questionnaire: A compact scale for the measurement of psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 33, 1073- 1082.

Itkes, O. & Mashal, N. (2016). Processing negative valence of words pairs that include a positive word. Cognition and Emotion, 30(6), 1180-1187, Doi: 10.1080/02699931.2015.1039934

Merikle, P. M., Smilek, D., & Eastwood, J. D. (2001). Perception without awareness: perspectives from cognitive psychology. Cognition, 79, 115-134.

Okubo, C. & Ogawa, T. (2013). Unconscious and conscious processing of negative emotions examined through effective priming. Psychological Reports: Relationships & Communications, 112(2), 607-625. Doi:10.2466/21.07.PR0.112.2.607-625 I

Residerg, D. (2103). Two types of priming. Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind, (5th Ed.). New York: Norton, 130-135.

Robinson, M. D.,& Kirkeby, B. S. (2005). Happiness as a belief system: Individual differences and priming in emotion judgments. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 31(8), Doi: 10.1177/0146167204274081

Spielberger, C. D., Gorsuch, R. L., Lushene, R., Vagg, P. R., & Jacobs, G. A. (1983). Manual for the state-trait anxiety inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists press.

Sakaki, M., Gorlick, M.A. & Mather, M. (2011). Differential interference effects of negative emotional states on subsequent semantic and perceptual processing. Emotion, 11(6), Dec 2011, 1263-1278. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0026329

Sass, K., Habel, U., Sachs, O., Huber, W., Gauggel, S. & Kircher, T. (2012) The influence of emotional associations on the neural correlates of semantic priming. Human Brain Mapping, 33(3), 676-694. Doi: 10.1002/hbm.21241

Vohs, K.D., Mead, N.L., Goode, M.R. (2008). Merely activating the concept of money changes personal and interpersonal behavior. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 17(3), 208-212

Yuan,J., Xu,S., Yang, J., Liu, Q., Chen, A., Zhu,L., Chen, J., Li, H. (2011). Pleasant mood intensifies brain processing of cognitive control: ERP correlates. Biological Psychology, 87, 17–24. Doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2011.01.004

Five Steps to Creating Miracles Now

If you want something. I mean really want something, then it's possible to bring it through from the thought world into the physical world. How?? Well that's what this article is all about.

This entire process can be done in five to ten minutes, but if you want to spend longer, you certainly can—and doing so will likely further amplify the power of your intention. Regardless of your physical posture, be sure that your neck and spine are straight, as this will foster alertness and receptivity in the physical and energetic bodies.

1. Ground your energy.

Here's an explanation from the book, "Earthing" by Clinton Ober:

Electrons move from the Earth to the body and vice versa when the body is grounded. This effect is sufficient to maintain the body at the same electrical potential as the Earth. Grounding powerfully reduces alternating current (AC) voltages induced on the body by ambient electromagnetic fields (EMFs).

The best way to "connect" to the Earth is to be barefoot  or sit outside on the ground and be connected to the Earth.

2. Connect with your breath.tongue
In China, Dr. Li Shi Zhen was the first to believe that the Governing and Conception Vessels are two branches of the same source, and inseparable Yin-and-Yang, front-and-back duality. These vessels connect the uterus with the Kidneys, Heart, and Brain.
They originate externally, ascend the front and back of the torso, and form a small circle when the tip of the tongue touches the upper palate in the mouth and the anal sphincter is squeezed. Not only does this action complete the balance of Fire (Heart) and Water (Kidneys) energy, it also increases the body's protective Wei Qi.  (Chapter 18 of the Ling Shu talks about the formation of wei qi as follows :

"Man's qi is retrieved from grain (gu). Grain enters the stomach and (the refined part) is sent to the lung (on its way to) the five zang and six fu, so they can all receive their portion of qi. The clear (qing) part is ying qi, the turbid (zhuo) is wei qi."  This passage establishes the stomach and the ingested grain therein as the starting point for all qi, both ying and wei, and the lung is simply a transfer point for this qi as it moves along to the other organs.)

Holding the tongue against the roof of the mouth (See diagram) connects the Governing and Conception vessels, and forms what is known as the Small Heavenly Circle, or the Microcosmic Orbit.

3. Open your subtle, energetic body White light meditation

Feel the energy running down your spine.  In your minds eye look at each chakra and see them expanding into balls of radiant light.  Visualize a white light body filling and expanding outward with each inhalation and on each exhalation, slowly seeing the light move past your physical body to fill the room, the house, the country, the world and then out into space.

4. Connect with your heart center.

5. Verbalise your intention.

Allow your intention to emerge organically from your heart; speak it out-loud - Remember all creation stories around the world start with a sound or word. Your voice is powerful so use it.

Nano Gold – The miracle heart healer

nano gold 617x493Gold is one of our most valuable commodities but its use extends far beyond jewellery and gold bars. It’s a conductive material and is helping us to develop new medical innovations such as specialised patches that could be used to grow new heart tissue following a heart attack.

Heart attacks are caused by an abrupt blockage of one or more of the blood vessels that supply blood to the heart. This immediately reduces the supply of nutrients and oxygen to the heart muscle and if the blood flow is not restored quickly, causes irreversible death of the cells and eventually affects the performance of the heart muscle.

Unlike cells in the liver, heart cells can’t multiply. And although the heart contains few stem cells - “mother cells” that have the potential to become any type of cell in the body - their amount is not enough to repair the tissue damaged by a heart attack.

Because of this, the damaged tissue following a heart attack can become tough and fibrous and the efficiency of the heart to pump blood to the rest of the body is reduced. This eventually leads to end-stage heart failure, when treatment becomes difficult, and can lead to a patient’s death.

Currently the only therapeutic option available to treat patients with terminal end-stage heart failure is a heart transplant. However, the scarcity of cardiac donors has led to an urgent need to develop new experimental treatments.

One biomaterial that we’re working on to restore heart function is a special cardiac “patch” that utilises gold to help stimulate tissue growth.

These patches are three-dimensional biomaterials that work like temporary scaffolds to support cells and promote their reorganisation into functional tissue. After they are transplanted into the body, the patch integrates with the heart’s own tissue and improves its function.

Using gold to mimic ‘electrical wiring’

The heart can contract when electrical stimulation from one cell spreads to neighbouring cells. This allows the cells to beat and contract together, efficiently pumping blood to the rest of the body. For the patches to work we also need to mimic the native “electrical wiring” of the heart cells. This can trigger the cells to organise into functioning heart tissue that could be transplanted.

Most of the biomaterials that cardiac patches are made from are non-conductive. So the scaffold basically blocks electrical signals from travelling from one beating cell to neighbouring cells, making it extremely difficult to get them all to beat in unity.

In our work, we are using nano fibres covered with gold nano particles - the size of one billionth of a metre - to conduct the electrical signalling.

As the gold increases the connectivity of the engineered scaffold, cells grown on these scaffolds are also able to mature into functioning tissue, contracting with a greater force, rate and uniformity when compared to cells grown on other kinds of scaffolds.

This has all been done in a lab, but the next step is to test the potential of the engineered gold-incorporated scaffolds to restore heart function after a heart attack in an animal model. If successful, it will provide the first step to creating functioning, transplantable heart tissue that can eventually be used to treat human patients.

What is Nano-gold?

Nano-gold is a small object composed of gold and, which has one-, two-, or three-dimensions on the nanoscale, i.e., a sheet, a rod, or a particle. For the purpose of our discussion nano-gold refers to the gold moiety alone, while nano-construct infers a moiety that consists of a core of nano-gold to which has been adsorbed or covalently bound a biomolecule or xenobiotic (drug, therapeutic, analytic), forming a more or less defined overall structure. A nano-gold construct formulation defines the character and often the proportions of bound entities to the nanoscale gold core.

Whether biomolecules or drugs bound physically or chemically to the gold surface should be considered when evaluating the size of a nano-construct seems to be somewhat dependent on the technology being used. For example, electron microscopy can readily detect the high-contrast gold core of a nanoconstruct, but it is much more difficult to visualize or measure exactly what and how many biological molecule or xenobiotic might be bound. On the other hand, dynamic light scattering is due to the entire entity, and all or most of the bound elements are included in the measurements. Thus, there are many challenges even at the level of rigorously defining what exactly we mean by nano-gold or a nano-gold therapeutic. Hopefully, these introductory comments and brief definitions have armed the novice to nano-gold with information to navigate our orientation to recent discoveries of exciting new roles for nano-gold in nanomedicine.

Properties of Nano-Gold In Vivo

When administered systemically, it is not surprising that gold nano-constructs are readily taken up by the reticulo-endothelial system including Kupffer cells in the liver [3]. While local presentation such as intra-tumor injection appears to result in retention of the nano-constructs [14]. Similarly, treatment of the cornea appears to result in an initial local distribution, followed by slow clearance and was not associated with inflammation or edema (in a rabbit study), and was effective in delivering gene transfer [7].

Nano-Gold in Energy Transfer for Therapeutics and Diagnostics

Nano-gold also has physical properties that make it useful across a range of other applications. Both optical and plasmon resonance properties suggest that they will have multiple applications across both therapeutics and diagnostics [15]. Used in conjunction with X-radiation, smaller nano-gold constructs appear to be effective in raising intracellular free radical concentrations [16], providing another potential mechanism via which cancer cells might be eliminated. Using related technology, X-ray computed tomography, targeted nano-gold labeled cells were readily detected in a small animal model of human disease [17], adding to the potential diagnostic arsenal.

Conclusion

Evidence in support of nano-gold constructs as bases for multiple medical applications appears to be accumulating with generally favorable outcomes to date. There is still much to learn about the potential cytotoxicity, which at least initially appears to be minimal at effective doses. The binding of biomolecules appears to be another area for further study and the general area of specific tissue and/or cellular targeting is a broader issue for all of nano-medicine and medicine generally. Nano-gold may provide a new light for applications spanning from gene-regulation to diagnostic imaging. Although the light is yet a single candle, the studies summarized in this virtual edition point the way to greater illumination of nano-gold in medicine.

References

1. Wang GK, Papasani MR, Cheguru P, Hrdlicka PJ, Hill RA: Gold-peptide nanoconjugate cellular uptake is modulated by serum proteins. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2012; 8 (6): 822-832

2. Papasani MR, Wang GK, Hill RA: Gold nanoparticles: the importance of physiological principles to devise strategies for targeted drug delivery. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2012; 8 (6): 804-814

3. Sadauskas E, Danscher G, Stoltenberg M, Vogel U, Larsen A, Wallin Hk: Protracted elimination of gold nanoparticles from mouse liver. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2009; 5 (2): 162-169

4. Lin IC, Liang M, Liu TY, Monteiro MJ, Toth I: Cellular transport pathways of polymer coated gold nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2012; 8 (1): 8-11

5. Gu Y-J, Cheng J, Man CW-Y, Wong W-T, Cheng SH: Gold-doxorubicin nanoconjugates for overcoming multidrug resistance. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine 2012; 8 (2): 204-211

6. Wang G, Norton AS, Pokharel D, Song Y, Hill RA: KDEL peptide gold nanoconstructs: promising nanoplatforms for drug delivery. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2013; 9 (3): 366-374

7. Sharma A, Tandon A, Tovey JCK, et al.: Polyethylenimine-conjugated gold nanoparticles: Gene transfer potential and low toxicity in the cornea. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2011; 7 (4): 505-513

8. Simpson CA, Salleng KJ, Cliffel DE, Feldheim DL: In vivo toxicity, biodistribution, and clearance of glutathione-coated gold nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2013; 9 (2): 257-263

9. Letfullin RR, Iversen CB, George TF: Modeling nanophotothermal therapy: kinetics of thermal ablation of healthy and cancerous cell organelles and gold nanoparticles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2011; 7 (2): 137-145

10. Raoof M, Corr SJ, Kaluarachchi WD, et al.: Stability of antibody-conjugated gold nanoparticles in the endolysosomal nanoenvironment: implications for noninvasive radiofrequency-based cancer therapy. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2012; 8 (7): 1096-1105

11. Arvizo RR, Rana S, Miranda OR, Bhattacharya R, Rotello VM, Mukherjee P: Mechanism of anti-angiogenic property of gold nanoparticles: role of nanoparticle size and surface charge. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2011; 7 (5): 580-587

12. Dobrovolskaia MA, Patri AK, Zheng J, et al.: Interaction of colloidal gold nanoparticles with human blood: effects on particle size and analysis of plasma protein binding profiles. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2009; 5 (2): 106-117

13. Etame AB, Smith CA, Chan WC, Rutka JT: Design and potential application of PEGylated gold nanoparticles with size-dependent permeation through brain microvasculature. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2011; 8(7): 992-1000

14. Chanda N, Kan P, Watkinson LD, et al.: Radioactive gold nanoparticles in cancer therapy: therapeutic efficacy studies of GA-198AuNP nanoconstruct in prostate tumor-bearing mice. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2010; 6(2): 201-209

15. Brullot W, Valev VK, Verbiest T: Magnetic-plasmonic nanoparticles for the life sciences: calculated optical properties of hybrid structures. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2012; 8(5): 559-568

16. Misawa M, Takahashi J: Generation of reactive oxygen species induced by gold nanoparticles under x-ray and UV Irradiations. Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology and Medicine 2011; 7(5): 604-614

What are Solfeggio Tones?

The Solfeggio Healing Tones is the Fountain of Youth that people have been searching for, for millenia.Screen shot 2012-06-11 at 1.10.51 AM

They can Cure Cancer, AIDS, Depression, etc..... and will help you develop your Psychic Powers and they are the energy that make up our universe and consciousness. Monks used to chant in the solfeggio tones however recently (last few hundred years) congregations and religious orders have had the tones changed so as not to awaken the consciousness within us.  Now the ancient knowledge of the healing properties of sound has come back to our awareness and you can benefit from this knowledge.

1. 174 Hz Foundation
2. 285Hz - Quantum Cognition
3. 396Hz -Liberation From Fear
4. 417Hz - Transmutation
5. 528Hz -DNA Repair (Miracle)
6. 639Hz - Relationship Harmonisation
7. 741Hz - Consciousness Expansion
8. 852Hz - Awakening Intuition
9. 963Hz - Numinous Accord

174 hz Foundation
This frequency will arrange energy and perception in organised cube symmetries, grooming a stable foundation for the acceleration and evolution of consciousness. Through discrimination, the personality becomes a vehicle for internal harmony as the listener becomes prepared to live a life of joy and purpose.

258 hz Quantum Cognition
This frequency assists in the acceleration and expansion of consciousness in balanced multi dimensional fields of awareness, accessing occilating equillibrium through the law of truth and wisdom. All shadows are illuminated by the light for gentle healing as strength is reestablished. In addition, personal will discovers true expression through reason followed by corrected action.

396Hz -Liberation From Fear
The Source of wisdom penetrates the mind and heart in this harmonic blend banishing the obstacles to peace . True memory is restored allowing the listener to have access to the treasures of internal knowledge. The influences of strength and equanimity. prepare the way for liberation.

417Hz - Transmutation
The revelation of truth allows the listener to release and convert the appearances of difficulty and setbacks, bringing order and inner listening to new heights of personal self-transformation. Internal Guidance is awakened and corrects and orders relationships and communication instilling the expression of clear vision and power.

528Hz -DNA Repair (Miracle)
Intuition becomes magnified and directs the quality of reason, uniting the source of wisdom and light through the remembrance of the miracle re-discovered in every moment. The listener is gifted with strength and peace as their purpose is unveiled through the instruments of free will and divine guidance.

IF YOU ONLY LISTEN TO ONE, LISTEN TO THIS ONE!!!!

639Hz - Relationship Harmonisation
The complete healing radiant Light descends upon the listener filling the personal mind with the influences of balance, health and tranquility. Mystifying sweeps of the Light on the path of return, embrace spacious counter melodies, igniting the means of approach to the precious internal unification of opposites.

741Hz - Consciousness Expansion
Clear vision is enabled allowing the opening and multiplication of a mind that self empowered, organised and free. Internal strength is optimised in the listener finding a vast opening to channel purified expressions of love and purpose.

852Hz - Awakening Intuition
This track establishes strength through joy in the recognition that the listener is connected to the source of all true power. Intuition and emotion are connected, protected and expanded as the Inner Voice becomes clear and strong in the revelation of divine purpose.

963Hz - Numinous Accord
The presence of divinity is amplified as the vibrations of the eternal self resonate in this audio track. The balance of strength and peace is instilled in the listener allowing Light and Love to guide the present experience.

The Power of Intention

Did you know that more important than what you do and what you think is the intention behind the action.  Screen shot 2012-06-11 at 12.54.39 AM

Consciously setting an intention creates an intense level of focus around what it is that we are intending, which magnetizes prana, and in turn amplifies the potency of our dreams. For example, when we concentrate intently on what we most want to bring into our lives (or into a particular moment), our attention will naturally channel life-force energy toward that very idea, which can’t help but support its manifestation. But let’s say we’re playing something traumatic, hurtful, or infuriating over and over in our minds. Inevitably, prana will coalesce around those thoughts, reinforcing rather unsupportive patterns in the mind-body matrix.