Toxic Products

Vaping Ingredients List

Ingredient Comments


  • used in foods to create buttery or creamy flavour
  • associated with irreversible lung damage (NICNAS 2019)
  • can be a source of diacetyl in nicotine vaping products (Vas et al. 2019)


  • used in foods and drinks to create cherry and almond flavours
  • classified by the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals as ‘Harmful in inhaled’ – Cat. 4 (H332) (ECHA Infocard)
  • reported to possibly cause respiratory failure, depression of the central nervous system and convulsions at high concentrations (IMAP Report – Benzaldehyde)


  • used in foods to create a cinnamon flavour
  • capable of cytotoxicity, impaired immune cell function and sensitisation (IMAP Report – Cinnameldehyde; Muthumalage et al. 2018)


  • used in foods to create buttery or creamy flavour
  • linked to irreversible lung damage known as bronchiolitis obliterans, or ‘popcorn lung’ (NICNAS 2019; Allen et al. 2016; Clapp & Jaspers 2017, NIOSH 2016)
  • prohibited ingredient in consumer nicotine vaping products in Canada and the UK


diethylene glycol

  • central nervous system, renal and cardiac toxicity have been demonstrated following exposure to diethylene glycol (Fowles et al. 2017; SCCP 2008), inhalation-specific toxicity data is limited
  • cannot be used as a diluent in consumer nicotine vaping products in Canada and the UK


ethylene glycol

  • respiratory irritation observed in humans and exposure linked to renal toxicity (Fowles et al. 2017; ATSDR 2010), presence in vaping products associated with toxicological hazards (Hutzler et al. 2014)
  • cannot be used as a diluent in consumer nicotine vaping products in Canada and the UK

entane-2,3-dione (2,3-pentanedione or acetylpropionyl)

  • used in foods to create buttery or creamy flavour
  • structurally related replacement for diacetyl (Allen et al. 2016) and associated with respiratory impairment (decreased lung function), fibrosis of the intrapulmonary airways in rats (similar to bronchiolitis obliterans in humans) (NIOSH 2016)
  • prohibited ingredient in consumer nicotine vaping products in Canada and the UK


vitamin E acetate (dl-alpha- tocopheryl acetate)

• associated with outbreak of e-cigarette, or vaping, product use- associated lung injury (EVALI) which resulted in over 2,000 hospitalisations or deaths (Blount et al. 2020; Boudi et al. 2019).


Potential Comments contaminant

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acrolein (also known as acraldehyde)

• severe respiratory irritation (FDA 2012; SCHEER 2021)


• respiratory irritation, respiratory tract carcinogenicity in rats following long term exposure. In humans, changes in lung function have been reported (FDA 2012; SCHEER 2021)

acetaldehyde (also known as ethanal)  • respiratory irritation, respiratory tract carcinogenicity in rats known as ethanal) following long term exposure (FDA 2012; SCHEER 2021)


Nicotine vaping products and vaping devices – TGO 110 and related matters Page 20 of 28 V1.2 July 2021. 

Therapeutic Goods Administration


There are substances in e-cigarette vapor that are not found in tobacco smoke. Researchers are part of the conflict, with some opposing and others supporting of e-cigarette use.The public health community is divided, even polarized, over how the use of these devices will impact the tobacco epidemic.Proponents of e-cigarettes think that these devices contain merely “water vapour” in the e-cigarette aerosols, but this view is refuted by the evidence.

List of hazardous tobacco smoke components with their cancer and non-cancer inhalation risk values.[30]
Smoke component Cancer risk (mg m−3)[nb 1] Institute Non-cancer risk (mg m−3)[nb 2] Endpoint Institute
1,1,1-Trichloro-2,2-bis(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (DDT) 0.0001 U.S. EPA      
1,1-Dimethylhydrazine 2E-06 ORNL      
1,3-Butadiene 0.0003 U.S. EPA 0.002 reproduction U.S. EPA
2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin(TCDD) 0.00026 Cal EPA      
2-Amino-3-methyl-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (MeAaC) 2.9E-05 Cal EPA      
2-Amino-3-methylimidazo[4,5-b]quinoline (IQ) 2.5E-05 Cal EPA      
2-Amino-6-methyl[1,2-a:3′,2″-d]imidazole (GLu-P-1) 7.1E-06 Cal EPA      
2-Aminodipyrido[1,2-a:3′,2″-d]imidazole (GLu-P-2) 2.5E-05 Cal EPA      
2-Aminonaphthalene 2E-05 Cal EPA      
2-Nitropropane   Cal EPA 0.02 liver, focal vacuolization and nodules U.S. EPA
2-Toluidine 0.0002 Cal EPA      
3-Amino-1,4-dimethyl-5H-pyrido [4,3-b]indole (Trp-P-1) 1.4E-06 Cal EPA      
3-Amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido[4,3-b]-indole (Trp-P-2) 1.1E-05 Cal EPA      
4-Aminobiphenyl 1.7E-06 Cal EPA      
5-Methylchrysene 9.1E-06 Cal EPA      
7H-Dibenzo(c,g)carbazole 9.1E-06 Cal EPA      
2-Amino-9H-pyrido[2,3-b]indole (AaC) 8.8E-05 Cal EPA      
Acetaldehyde 0.0045 U.S. EPA 0.009 nasal olfactory epithelial lesions U.S. EPA
Acetamide 0.0005 Cal EPA      
Acetone     30 neurological effects ATSDR
Acetonitrile     0.06 mortality U.S. EPA
Acrolein     2E-05 nasal lesions U.S. EPA
Acrylamide 0.008        
Acrylic acid     0.001 nasal olfactory epithelium degeneration U.S. EPA
Acrylonitrile 0.00015 U.S. EPA 0.002 respiratory effects U.S. EPA
Ammonia     0.1 respiratory effects U.S. EPA
Aniline B2—probable human carcinogen U.S. EPA 0.001 immune-related U.S. EPA
Arsenic 2.3E-06 U.S. EPA      
Benz[a]anthracene 9.1E-05 Cal EPA      
Benzene 0.0013 U.S. EPA 0.0098 decreased lymphocyte count ATSDR
Benzo[a]pyrene 9.1E-06 Cal EPA      
Benzo[j]fluoranthene 9.1E-05 Cal EPA      
Beryllium 4.2E-06        
Cadmium 5.6E-06 U.S. EPA      
Carbazole 0.0018 NATA      
Carbon disulfide     0.1 effects on CNS HC
Carbon monoxide     10 cardiotoxic Cal EPA
Chloroform 0.00043 U.S. EPA 0.1 liver changes ATSDR
Chromium VI 8.3E-07 U.S. EPA 0.0001 lower respiratory effects U.S. EPA
Chrysene 0.00091 Cal EPA      
Cobalt     0.0005 respiratory functions RIVM
Copper     0.001 lung and immune system effects RIVM
Di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate 0.0042 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,i]pyrene 9.1E-07 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,h]acridine 9.1E-05 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,h]anthracene 8.3E-06 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,j]acridine 9.1E-05 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,h]pyrene 9.1E-07 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,l]pyrene 9.1E-07 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[a,e]pyrene 9.1E-06 Cal EPA      
Dibenzo[c,g]carbazole 9.1E-06 Cal EPA      
Dimethylformamide     0.03 digestive disturbances; minimal hepatic changes U.S. EPA
Ethyl carbamate 3.5E-05 Cal EPA      
Ethylbenzene     0.77 liver and kidney effects RIVM
Ethylene oxide 0.00011 Cal EPA      
Ethylenethiourea 0.00077 Cal EPA      
Formaldehyde 0.00077 U.S. EPA 0.01 nasal irritation ATSDR
Hexane     0.7 neurotoxicity U.S. EPA
Hydrazine 2E-06 U.S. EPA 0.005 fatty liver changes ATSDR
Hydrogen cyanide     0.003 CNS and thyroid effects U.S. EPA
Hydrogen sulfide     0.002 nasal lesions U.S. EPA
Indeno[1,2,3-c,d]pyrene 9.1E-05 Cal EPA      
Isopropylbenzene     0.4 increased kidney, adrenal gland weights U.S. EPA
Lead 0.00083 Cal EPA 0.0015 not applicable U.S. EPA
Manganese     5E-05 neurobehavioral U.S. EPA
m-Cresol     0.17 CNS RIVM
Mercury     0.0002 nervous system U.S. EPA
Methyl chloride     0.09 cerebellar lesions U.S. EPA
Methyl ethyl ketone     5 developmental toxicity U.S. EPA
Naphthalene     0.003 nasal effects U.S. EPA
N-nitrosodi-n-butylamine (NBUA) 6.3E-06 U.S. EPA      
N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) 7.1E-07 U.S. EPA      
Nickel     9E-05 chronic active inflammation and lung fibrosis ATSDR
Nitrogen dioxide     0.1 not applicable U.S. EPA
N-nitrosodiethanolamine 1.3E-05 Cal EPA      
N-nitrosodiethylamine 2.3E-07 U.S. EPA      
N-nitrosoethylmethylamine 1.6E-06 Cal EPA      
N-Nitrosonornicotine (NNN) 2.5E-05 Cal EPA      
N-Nitroso-N-propylamine 5E-06 Cal EPA      
N-nitrosopiperidine 3.7E-06 Cal EPA      
N-nitrosopyrrolidine 1.6E-05 U.S. EPA      
n-Propylbenzene     0.4 increased organ weight U.S. EPA
o-Cresol C- possible human carcinogen U.S. EPA 0.17 decreased body weight, neurotoxicity RIVM
p, m-Xylene     0.1 respiratory, neurological, developmental U.S. EPA
p-Benzoquinone C- possible human carcinogen U.S. EPA 0.17 CNS RIVM
p-Cresol C- possible human carcinogen U.S. EPA 0.17 CNS RIVM
Phenol     0.02 liver enzymes, lungs, kidneys, and cardiovascular system RIVM
Polonium-210 925.9 ORNL[nb 3]      
Propionaldehyde     0.008 atrophy of olfactory epithelium U.S. EPA
Propylene oxide 0.0027 U.S. EPA      
Pyridine     0.12 odour threshold RIVM
Selenium     0.0008 respiratory effects Cal EPA
Styrene     0.092 body weight changes and neurotoxic effects HC
Toluene     0.3 colour vision impairment ATSDR
Trichloroethylene 82 HC 0.2 liver, kidney, CNS effects RIVM
Triethylamine     0.007 n.a. U.S. EPA
Vinyl acetate     0.2 nasal lesions U.S. EPA
Vinyl chloride 0.0011 U.S. EPA  

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